Caffeic Acid: Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects, Drug Interactions, and Other Important Information

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Caffeine is a naturally occurring phenolic molecule (also known as 3.4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) that is present in a wide variety of plant species. This chemical substance is a member of the polyphenol family of hydroxycinnamic acids. The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants produces caffeine, which is crucial for several growth and development processes, including the production of lignin. The term “caffeic acid” may imply that it originated from coffee beans, but it can also be found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

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Caffeic Acid: Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects, Drug Interactions, and Other Important Information is an original (NootropicsPlanet) article.

The Nature of Caffeic Acid

Caffeic acid is a phenolic chemical that occurs in nature and is grouped with hydroxycinnamic acids, a family of polyphenols. Its powerful antioxidant properties come from the cinnamic acid backbone of its chemical structure, which has two hydroxyl groups connected to the phenyl ring.

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The phenylpropanoid pathway, a metabolic process that begins with the amino acid phenylalanine, is used by plants to bio-synthesize it. The synthesis of lignin, a crucial component of plant cell walls, is one of several metabolites produced by this route that are crucial to the growth and development of plants.

Although the word “caffeic acid” may indicate a link to coffee, this substance is not just found in coffee beans. It is extensively spread in nature and may be found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fungus.

To create chlorogenic acid, a significant phenolic component present in coffee, caffeic acid is often conjugated with quinic acid in plants. In plant tissues, it is also present in esterified form together with other phenolics and alcohols.

Caffeic acid is a dietary compound that belongs to the wider class of dietary polyphenols known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and perhaps anti-carcinogenic properties. The substance is easily absorbed by the  digestive system, and urine tests may reveal the presence of the substance’s metabolites, suggesting systemic distribution.

Health Benefits

There has been many research done on the possible health advantages of caffeine. Numerous studies have shown caffeic acid to be protective against a number of illnesses, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Caffeic acid’s antioxidative properties  may help prevent atherosclerosis in cardiovascular health by preventing LDL oxidation. Additionally, it has vasodilatory properties that may help to decrease blood pressure and enhance heart health.

Caffeic acid also seems promising in terms of neuroprotection. Its antioxidant properties help  reduce brain damage brought on by oxidative stress, a crucial contributor to neurodegenerative illnesses including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. It may lessen neuroinflammation as well, which adds to its neuroprotective properties.

Lady having a cup of coffee.

Chemistry of Caffeic Acid

A polyphenolic substance known as caffeineic acid has two phenolic hydroxyl groups joined to a cinnamic acid structure. These hydroxyl groups in caffeic acid make it a potent antioxidant. The phenolic ring structure can  easily provide hydrogen atoms to neutralize damaging free radicals since the hydroxyl groups are conjugated to it.

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Physiological Properties of Caffeic Acid

Caffeic acid’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties  are primarily responsible for its positive benefits on health. Caffeic acid lowers oxidative stress, a significant cause of chronic illnesses including cancer and cardiovascular disease, by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Caffeine’s ability  to block nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), a crucial regulator of inflammatory reactions, is a major factor  in the anti-inflammatory effects of caffeine. It prevents NF-kB from being activated, which lowers the production of cytokines that promote inflammation.

Due to its ability  to control cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis, it has anti-carcinogenic properties. Caffeic acid can  stop cancer cells from multiplying and growing by controlling these mechanisms.

Coffee beans.

Optimal Dosage

Due to individual differences in absorption and metabolism, as well as the large variety of food sources, it is difficult to determine the ideal amount of caffeic acid. However, researchers  often advise consuming 500–1000 mg of caffeic acid daily.

The majority of research show that caffeic acid is safe at amounts seen in most foods. High dosages, however, could have unwanted consequences. High concentrations of caffeic acid may possibly result in cell toxicity and DNA damage, according to in vitro and animal studies. Therefore, it is advised to ingest  caffeic acid in moderation according to dietary guidelines.

Side Effects

Caffeic acid is usually regarded as safe in terms of side  effects when ingested in moderation as part of a healthy diet. However, excessive use, especially  when it comes to supplements, may have unfavorable consequences. It is also important to keep in mind that each person’s reactions may differ depending on their genetic makeup and general health.

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 When given for an extended length of time,  ingesting caffeic acid at high dosages can  have cytotoxic consequences. Although these results are mostly based on cell culture models and may not immediately apply to our anatomy,  in vitro studies have shown that high doses of caffeic acid may cause cell toxicity and DNA damage.

In addition, caffeic acid, a powerful antioxidant, may interact with other antioxidants in the body, thereby upsetting the delicate redox equilibrium. For example, too many antioxidants might sometimes behave as pro-oxidants, causing oxidative stress rather than reducing it.

Caffeic acid can  also cause gastrointestinal discomfort in some individuals when consumed in large amounts. Symptoms could include nausea, stomach cramps, or diarrhea.

Additionally, caffeic acid should not be consumed if you have  a documented allergy or hypersensitivity to foods or supplements that contain the substance. Skin rashes, itching, shortness of breath, swelling of the face or neck, and, in extreme circumstances, anaphylaxis are all examples of allergic responses.

Despite these possible side  effects, caffeic acid from dietary sources is often regarded as safe for the majority of people when taken in moderation. However, it is advised to explore caffeic acid supplementation under the guidance of a medical practitioner who can provide individualized guidance depending on each person’s health situation and requirements. As with any dietary supplement, the advantages and disadvantages should be carefully considered.

Stomach cramps.

Potential Substance Interactions

Caffeic acid has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities, which can  cause interactions with certain drugs. For  example, it could intensify the effects of anticoagulant medications, which raises  the risk of bleeding. Therefore, before increasing your  caffeic acid consumption, if you are  using such drugs, you should speak with your healthcare professional.

Best Responsible Uses

The most effective strategy to take advantage of caffeic acid’s health advantages is to include it into your  diet via natural sources. A healthy diet should include fruits, vegetables, and whole grains high in caffeic acid. Before considerably increasing your  caffeic acid consumption, if you have been diagnosed  with certain medical issues, you should speak with your  doctor.

Caffeic Acid:

Conclusion

In summary, caffeine is a strong phenolic molecule with important anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Its many health advantages—from cardiovascular prevention to neuroprotection—underline the significance of including it in a balanced diet. However, like any bioactive substance, it should be ingested carefully while taking drug interactions and side effects into consideration.

Antioxidant food sources.

References:

  1. The Role of Polyphenols in Human Health and Food Systems: A Mini-Review. Retrieved From: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2018.00105/full
  2. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance. Retrieved From: https://www.nature.com/articles/1602579

Important Note: The information contained in this article is for general informational purposes only, and should not be construed as health or medical advice, nor is it intended to diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure any disease or health condition. Before embarking on any diet, fitness regimen, or program of nutritional supplementation, it is advisable to consult your healthcare professional in order to determine its safety and probable efficacy in terms of your individual state of health.

Regarding Nutritional Supplements Or Other Non-Prescription Health Products: If any nutritional supplements or other non-prescription health products are mentioned in the foregoing article, any claims or statements made about them have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and such nutritional supplements or other health products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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